Thesaurus


α-Amylase is an enzyme that hydrolyses alpha-bonds of large alpha-linked polysaccharides such as starch andglycogen, yielding glucose and maltose.[1] It is the major form of amylase found in humans and other mammals.[2] It is also present in seeds containing starch as a food reserve, and is secreted by many fungi.
Batter \ˈba-tər\is a semi-liquid mixture of one or more flours combined with liquids such as water,milk or eggs used to prepare various foods. (This is used for blintzes - unleavened dough)
Baker's yeasts  is the common name for the strains of yeast used as a leavening agent in baking bread and bakery products, where it converts the fermentable sugars present in the dough into carbon dioxide and ethanol. Baker's yeast is of the species Saccharomyces cerevisiae,[1] which is the same species commonly used in alcoholic fermentation, and so is also called
 brewer's yeast.
Cereal: Cereals are grasses (members of the monocot family Poaceae, also known as Gramineae)[1] cultivated for the edible components of their grain (botanically, a type of fruit called a caryopsis), composed of the endospermgerm, and bran. Cereal grains are grown in greater quantities and provide more food energy worldwide than any other type of crop[citation needed]; they are therefore staple crops.
The word cereal derives from Ceres, the name of the Roman goddess of harvest and agriculture.
CFM  cubic feet per meter
Chorleywood Bread Process:  (1961) industrial bread production: high speed, high temperature, large energy input, short time, lower nutritional value http://www.allotment.org.uk/allotment_foods/bread-making/chorleywood-bread-process.php
Crumb- крошка, мякиш.
Crumble - крошиться
Custard: заварной крем ("custard- like quality found in great breads",[1], p. 8).
Degassing  a gentler technique than punching;  This involves stretching and folding the dough (rather than punching it). One usually degasses dough when it has risen about 1-1/2 times the original bulk. Two "strech and folds" are normally sufficient. You'll notice that the dough rises faster after doing this; wait until it has risen again to 1-1/2 to 2 times the original bulk and proceed with the shaping according to the recipe.  (see here). 
Durum wheat or Macaroni wheat Durum in Latin means "hard", and the species is the hardest of all wheats. Its high protein content, as well as its strength, make durum good for special uses, the most well-known being pasta which in Italy is exclusively made from durum wheat.[4] Durum wheat is used extensively in breadmaking. However, it is unusual in that, despite very high protein content, it is low in desirable gluten needed to form a glutinous web necessary for bread to rise. 
Gluten (from Latin gluten, "glue") is a protein composite found in foods processed from wheat and related grain species, including barley and rye. It gives elasticity todough, helping it to rise and to keep its shape, and often giving the final product achewy texture. ...  
The seeds of most flowering plants have endosperms with stored protein to nourish embryonic plants during germination. True gluten, with gliadin and glutenin, is limited to certain members of the grass family. 
The development of gluten (i.e., enhancing its elasticity) affects the texture of the baked goods. Gluten's attainable elasticity is proportional to its content of glutenins with low molecular weights as this portion contains the preponderance of the sulfur atoms responsible for the cross-linking in the network.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gluten
Glutenin is a protein best known for its role, along with gliadin, in the creation of gluten with its disulfide inter- and intra-molecule links. Glutenin consists of 20% HMW (High-Molecular-Weight) subunits, which are relatively low in sulfur. The other 80% are LMW (Low-Molecular-Weight) subunits and are high in sulfur. It is soluble in diluted acids and bases.

Glutenin is responsible for the firmness of dough...

hearth  (härth) The floor of a fireplace, usually extending into a room and paved with brick, flagstone, or cement. Roughly: brick or stone oven.

leaven

 [lev-uhn] a substance, (as yeast or starter)   that causes fermentation and expansion of dough or batter.
2.
fermented dough reserved for producing fermentation in anew batch of dough.

Malt is germinated cereal grains that have been dried in a process known as "malting".
Maltose (pronunciation: /ˈmɔːlts/[2] or /ˈmɔːltz/[3]), also known as maltobiose or malt sugar, is a disaccharide formed from two units of glucose joined with an α(1→4)bond, formed from a condensation reaction.

Oven springThe sudden increases in the volume of a dough during the first 10–12 minutes of baking, due to increased rate of fermentation and expansion of gases.

Poolish is the French term for a pre-ferment made of flour and water and a little bakers yeast. A poolish is normaly made at 100% hydration. The amount of yeast is normally very small. The actual amount of yeast is changed depending on the temperature where the poolish will be allowed to rise and how soon the poolish will be used.
Preferment is a general term for something that is done before the final dough is mixed. The first preferment was sourdough. Later preferments include autolyse, bigas, old dough, sponges, and poolish. Preferments give many benefits to the baker. The build the taste in the bread, they make the dough easier to knead, they extend the life of the bread, and they reduce the amount of yeast needed to produce bread compared to a straight dough.
Punching down used to deflate dough during a rise "in the bowl". After the dough has about risen 1-1/2 to 2 times the original bulk, you punch it down with your fist (it deflates) and then, usually, you flip it (to bring the oiled part to the top) and recover with plastic wrap (see here). 
Rustic bread :    "farmer's" (?)                      http://www.thefreshloaf.com/recipes/rusticbread
Salt (percentage in a dough): "Weigh salt at 1.8% of the flour"; 2% of flour ([2], p. 24)
Sticky dough: sticks to dry finger when you poke it 
Staple foodis one that is eaten regularly and in such quantities that it constitutes a dominant portion of a diet, and that supplies a high proportion of energy and nutrient needs. Most people live on a diet based on at most a small number of staples.[1] S.f. are typically inexpensive or readily available foods that supply one or more of the three macronutrients needed for survival and health: carbohydrate, protein, and fat.
Starchpolysaccharide, a chain of many sugar rings [2].  Carbohydrate consisting of a large number of glucose units joined by glycosidic bonds [WP]. The most important starches in flour are amylose (straight) and amylopectin (branched) molecules made of glucose sugars
Sourdough means in our context wild yeast or naturally leavened dough
Thaw to cause to change from a frozen to a liquid or semiliquidstate; melt. The dough can be frozen to save  it for longer than  a week ([1]. p.46). To thaw, move it to refrigerator for a day or so to "thaw slowly without over-fermentation"
Tacky (not sticky) dough.  It sticks to a dry finger but peels off easily ([1], p. 8). a little dough sticks but the most pills off
("behaves like a post-it note" PR, p. 8) 
Wok   A bowl-shaped frying pan used typically in Chinese cooking, normally at high temperatures.

[1] "Peter Reinhart's Artisan breads every day" (PR)
[2] Emily Buehler "Bread Science" 
Comments